For some 400 years, England and its territories of Scotland and Wales came under Roman control in the land referred to as Britannium.
Britain suffered repeatedly from raids by Scots and Picts from the north, Angles and Saxons from Denmark and Germany. The Roman’s built shore forts, but it wasn’t enough, especially as Hadrian’s Wall was breached in AD367.
In the year 409, Honorius the Roman Emperor in Britain was recalled home, to Rome. His home, his lands were under constant attack from Germanic tribes.
In the year 433, Attila the Hun, arrives with horse mounted archers in Europe, and before long dominates the territories north of the old Roman Empire, from Moscow in the west to the North Sea. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes were forced westwards, seeking out new lands.
Formation of the Kingdom of Kent:
Some forty year (AD449) after the Roman forces had left Britain, Vortigen the ruler of Kent, offered territory in the south eastern parts of the land. The only request he made upon these warriors, that they stop the invading Picts and Scots…
This mercenary force, arrived in three longships, landing at Ebbesfleet. They drove the Picts and Scots back to their northern lands, and victory was their’s.
More forces arrived, in the shape of three Germanic tribes: Old Saxons, Angles and Jutes.
Their leaders were two brothers; Hengest and Horsa who in 455, fought against Vortigen at Aegelesthrop. Horsa was killed and Hengest and his son Aesc claimed the kingdom of Kent. Britons from the south-west of Britain fled to France in 450, and colonized the area, now known as Brittany.
In 456 Hengest and Aesc fought Britons at Crecganford, and were victorious, as defeated Britons fled Kent, and headed to London for safety.
Formation of the Kingdom of Sussex:
In the year 477, Ella a Southern Saxon, lands his forces in Pevensey Bay. Fierce battles lasting many months, as most of its inhabitants, are killed, led to the creation of Sussex.
In the year 493, Clovis King of the Franks marries a Christian in France. Under Clovis, the Franks become Christians, and go on to rule the western half of France and Germany.
Formation of the Kingdom of Wessex:
In 495 Saxon warriors land at Cerdicesora, led by Cerdic and his son Cynric, and in 508 kill a British King; Natanlaod and his force of five-thousand men.
In 516 King Arthur is believed to have stopped a West Saxon expansion westwards for a few years, at the “Battle of Badon Hill.”
Formation of the Kingdom of Essex:
In 527, the last Saxon tribe, landed east of London, on the waters of the River Thames and settled in the territories of Essex.
Formation of the Kingdom of Northumberland:
In the year 547, the Angles settle to the north of the River Humber.
Formation of the Kingdom of East Anglia:
In the year 575, Angles settle in the land of East Anglia, and went on to create the lands of Norfolk and Suffolk.
Formation of the Kingdom of Mercia:
In 586 Angles colonised Romanised parts of Britain, now called the East Midlands.
By now some 200,000 Angles, Saxons and Jutes, ruled by seven Germanic Kings lived in Britain. British males had been slaughtered, or fled to the safety of Scotland and Wales.