The Norman invasion of 1066, was led by Duke William of Normandy, who became William I (William the Conqueror), King of England. He who was a descendant of those pagan Vikings, who attacked coastal communities from Scandinavia, who settled in the Seine Valley in 911.
When King Edward the Confessor died, Harold seized the English throne, and Edward’s promise that William should succeed him, was ignored. This precipitated a Norman attack, as William claimed his right to the English throne.
England of the 11th century was not only an old country, but one stepped in wealth, one of which was English wool being exported to Europe…
So the Domesday Book was born, for he needed to know how much his new kingdom was worth. Who owned every piece of land, those who lived and worked it, how much livestock, and set it down as a record.
They recorded the name of the estate, whose name it was in, how much livestock, ploughs, slaves, freemen, sokemen, wood, meadow, pasture and mills. How much each freeman and sokeman had, and its considered value, thereof.
For it was a record of estates and manors, and how much tax could be levied across the country as a whole… an estate liability.
After the Norman Conquest, William initiated a change of estates and manor ownership, which would be recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Some 180 large estates and manors formerly owned by Anglo-Saxons, changed hands to that of Norman Barons.
6,000 farmers, who owned their land, now had to lease it from their new Norman masters.
The Domesday Book described a conquered country to a King, who never uttered a word of the English language, but wanted a detailed record of its ownership, and estimated value for tax purposes. It paints a picture of early medieval England, with its Feudal System, Local Government and Taxation.
The Doomesday Book was a new start for the country, whose roots were firmly rooted in the past.
Of the sixteen Anglo-Saxon Bishoprics, only one survived, the others were moved to large centres under Norman leadership, and all six Anglo-Saxon Sees were changed to Norman.
By the year 1200, most of the Anglo-Saxon Cathedrals were destroyed and replaced by Norman-Styled Architecture of which many still exist to this day.
William took over a country, down to the last blade of grass, and developed a system, run by his Norman officials, from central to local officials. For he needed England’s wealth in taxes to pay for his army.
So a demand for tax would be sent to a shire, by representatives of the court, which would carry the royal seal, often backed by military forces to ensure payment.
When Edward the Confessor died, and Duke William of Normandy his chosen successor finally claimed the English throne. Who would have believed he would milk the country dry by means of taxation, to pay for his own army…