The Hundred Years War: England and France fought each other for the French throne, and English territories from 1337-1453. The war was not fought continuously but in phases. It started out well for the English, but by 1453, the tide had turned in favour of France, all English lands except Calais were lost.
The “Battle of Cadsand – (1337),” the first battle of the Hundred Years War, where Edward III raided the island of Cadsand… leading to an English victory.
The “Naval Battle of Sluys – (1340)” saw some two hundred French, Castilian and Genoese sail across the English Channel… for a prolonged invasion of England.
The English had a small fleet, but they had long bowmen situated on platforms at the rear of their ships, and were able to fire off arrows, much quicker than Frances crossbowmen.
The French were driven from their decks by a barrage of arrows, as ships closed in. Grappling irons secured boats for boarding, as English forces scrambled onto French ships followed by hand-to-hand fighting.
The achieved victory, gave England control of the English Channel.
The “Battle of Auberoche – (1345),” was a battle fought between English and French troops over disputed boundaries… English forces won through.
The “Siege of Calais – (1346)“, tells of English forces capture of Calais, turning the area into their operations base.
The “Battle of Crecy – (1346)” was fought in northern France; an overwhelming defeat for the French, with a far larger army than the English forces. Genoese mercenary crossbow men and French knights, proved no match for the English longbow men.
The “Battle of Saint – Pol – de – Leon (1346),” an English commander named Dagworth, withdrew his men, taking cover at a nearby hill, where they dug trenches and waited for the French. He was not disappointed as General Blois and his infantry assaulted their position, and they were cut down by English forces, leading to an English victory.
The “Battle of La Roche – Derrien (1347),” England’s forces fell into a trap set by Duke Charles, luring Dagworth into a night battle. The French overwhelmed them, Dagworth was forced to surrender. Charles let his guard down, and English backup forces led to his defeat.
The “Battle of Saintes (1351),” where French forces attempted to capture the town, but English forces arrived, and were victorious.
The “Battle of Ardres (1351).” French forces led by Lord Beaujieu, surrounded English forces under the command of John of Beauchamp as they withdrew from Saint-Omer, leading to a French victory.
The “Battle of Mauron (1352),” tells of an English captain, Breton captain and Franco Breton forces, meeting at Brambily, where the French were defeated… leading to an Anglo-Breton victory.
The “Battle of Poitiers (1356)” saw Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, defeat the French army near Poitiers. Yet again, the English longbowmen played a decisive part in the battle. King John II (Jean II) of France was captured and taken to England, where he remained until 1360, promising to pay a ransom for his release.
During the French King’s captivity in England, Charles attempted to be crowned King of France, but the attempt failed.
A peace treaty was drafted in 1360, which coincided with John’s release, by 1369 the treaty broke down wand was resumed.
At the “Battle of Auray (1364),” English troops commanded by John Chandos lay siege to the town of Auray. French forces lose and the town surrenders. The French military leader; Bertrand du Guesclin is captured and held for ransom.
At the “Battle of Navarrette (1367),” fought between Anglo-Gascon and Franco-Castilian forces. English forces were led by Edward, against Henry of Trastamara. Henry’s half-brother assisted Edward in his defeat.
At the “Battle of Montiel (1369)” Peter had the support of Edward and England, Henry and France. Peter lost the battle, as Edward withdrew his support, and Henry was victorious for France.
At the “Battle of Chiset (1373),” French forces attacked the town of Chiset. The English called for help, but the battle was over before they arrived, and the French were the victors.
At the “Siege of Harfleur (1415)” King Henry V of England landed on French soil with 10,000 men. The siege lasted about a month, and Henry’s forces were victorious, but at a price, his number had been severely reduced. Next stop for Henry was Calais, but French forces intercepted him at Agincourt.
The “Battle of Agincourt (1415)”. English forces under the command of King Henry V, defeated a superior French army, and his skilled longbowmen, won the battle for their King and England.
The “Siege of Rouen (1418-1419)” English forces reached Rouen in the July of 1418, and came face to face with the French commanded by Blanchard and LeBouteillen. English forces found it impossible to breach city walls, and opted to starve out their enemy. On the 20th January 1419, the French surrendered.
The “Battle of Bauge (1421)” French and Scottish forces joined up, attacking the English in Normandy. Thomas, the Duke of Clarence’s force of cavalry and infantry, were not working with each other, as they attacked allied forces, which brought down their army and victory went to the Franco-Scots force.
On the 31st August 1422, King Henry V of England died at Vincennes in France, and two months later King Charles VI of France also died.
The “Battle of Cravant (1423).” Following a standoff, Scottish archers began firing at the enemy. Then under the protection of the longbows chose to cross the river. The French withdrew their forces, as the Scottish forces fought on, only to be cut down. This would lead to a victory for the English and Burgundian army.
The “Battle of Verneuil (1423).” Some 15,000 French and Scottish troops attacked a 9,000 strong English force in Normandy. As the French and Scottish forces charged, English longbowmen cut them down in their tracks.
The “Battle of St.James (1426).” The battle took place at Avranches, between French and English troops on the border of Normandy and Brittany. English forces overwhelmed the French, leading to an English victory.
The “Battle of Jargeau (1429).” Joan of Arc and Duke John controlled French forces against the English. The French assault started on the 11th June and on the 12th June, Joan called upon the English to surrender. Even though the English suffered heavy losses, they battled on, refusing to give in, and were victorious over the French.
The “Battle of Beaugency (1429).” French forces were losing control of the river crossings, one by one. French determination won through, as English commanders were captured and longbowmen killed.
The “Siege of Orleans (1429),” will be most remembered when Joan of Arc, a 17 year old peasant girl, stepped forward claiming divine guidance. Her actions marked a turning point for French forces, she would lead the troops to victory over the English.
In the year 1429, French became more victorious in battle against the English. Joan of Arc put fire in the bellies of French troops, and she would lead them into battle.
The “Battle of Patay (1429).” This victory is credited to Joan of Arc, even though the battle was won, before France’s main force arrived on the scene.
The “Siege of Compiegne (1430).” Captain Louis led an artillery bombardment at Choisy. As the French forces were victorious, Joan of Arc was captured, put on trial by the English and burnt at the stake as a witch in 1431, in Rouen.
At the “Battle of Gerbevoy (1435).” French forces were commanded by La Hire and Jean Poton de Xaintrailles, who were victorious over English forces. La Hire was promoted to Captain General of Normandy in 1438, and died in 1443 at Montauban.
The “Battle of Formingny (1450).” King Charles VII of France, goes on the attack, pushing back a force of 5,000 English troops, into the town of Formingny. French artillery open fire on the town, and only 1,000 English survived the bombardment. Formingny marked an end to fighting in the northern territories of France.
The “Battle of Castillon (1453),” saw a victorious French army defeat English forces and marked an end to the Hundred Years War. This battle was more about the use of cannons to achieve victory.
King Edward III of England had plunged the country into war against the French: “The Hundred Years War.” Edward died in 1377 and so the reign of King Richard II began. In 1396 Richard married Isabella of France, daughter of King Charles VI.
Richard and Isabella’s marriage, led to a twenty-eight truce in hostilities between the two countries. It didn’t take long for the truce to be broken, and war to break out again.
The English failed to achieve victory in the Hundred Years War, even though they had achieved many victories. After the Battle of Agincourt, the war changed direction, away from the English to the French.
England lost the war, all their territories except Calais, which was later captured in 1558.