10,000 BC: The earliest known occupation of Scotland by man, started in the Palaeolithic era, also known as the Stone Age. Man lived off the land and waters, hunting for fish and wild animals, gathering fruit, plants, roots, nuts and shells.
3,000 BC: Early prehistoric tools discovered in Scotland, date back to the Neolithic age, and the nomadic hunter-gatherers. It was a time when farmers built permanent dwellings.
120 AD: Much of Scotland’s history, started when the Roman’s arrived in Britain. As hard as they tried, Roman forces could not defeat the Caledonians and Picts. Fortifications were built by the Romans, to defend themselves against these warriors, in the shape of Hadrian’s and Antonine Wall.
800 AD: Viking accomplished warriors and seamen migrated from Norway and Denmark, settling in Scotland. The Viking’s settled in the west as the Picts forged a new kingdom; the Kingdom of Alba.
1040 AD: Macbeth ruled Scotland, and a fictious tale by William Shakespeare written in Tudor Times, kept the tale alive for centuries. Macbeth, the King of Alba ruled from 1040-1057.
1100 AD: In the 12th century, the Kingdom of Alba grew, becoming a feudal society. Peace was achieved through the “Treaty of Falaise,” signed by William I. During the reigns of Alexander II & III much land was turned over to agriculture, trade on the continent grew, monasteries and abbeys flourished.
1297 AD: Succession crisis brought unrest across Scotland, following the death of Alexander III. England’s monarch, Edward I believed he should be recognised as overlord of Scotland, as his troops marched north. Edward planned to cross the River forth at Stirling Bridge, but were pushed back by William Wallace.
1306 AD: Robert the Bruce was crowned King, amidst times of unrest. In 1314, Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II at the “Battle of Bannockburn.”
1320 AD: The “Declaration of Arbroath” proclaimed Scotland’s status as an independent state, which was sent to the Pope John XXII, who gave his seal of approval.
1450 AD: The cultural intellectual and artistic movement took hold across Europe which brought changes to Scotland. Education, intellectual life, literature, art, music, architecture, and politics advanced in the late 15th century.
1542 AD: In 1542 Mary is crowned Queen of the Scots at the tender age of nine months. Her reign was marked by civil unrest during the Rough Wooing and conflict between the Catholics and Protestants during the Reformation. Worried Mary would try to launch a Catholic plot against her, Elizabeth I imprisoned Mary in England until her execution in 1597.
1603 AD: James VI succeeded to the throne at just 13 months after Mary was forced to abdicate. When Elizabeth I died with no heir, James VI succeeded to the English throne and became King James VI & James I, a historic move that’s now known as the “Union of the Crowns.”
1707 AD: The Act of Union brought Scotland even closer to Britain by creating a single Parliament of the United Kingdom at the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament).
1746AD: The “Battle of Culloden” in 1746 was the final Jacobite rising and the last battle fought on British soil. The Jacobites were no match for the Hanoverian army – the battle lasted barely an hour and the army had been crushed.
1746 AD: Shortly after the defeat of the Jacobites at Culloden, a period known as the Highland Clearances began. A number of laws were introduced in an attempt to assimilate the Highlanders; speaking Gaelic and wearing traditional attire was banned, and clan chiefs had their rights of jurisdiction removed.
1750 AD: The Age of Enlightment shaped the modern world. The intellectual movement sought to understand the natural world and the human mind and ranged across philosophy, chemistry, geology, engineering, technology, poetry, medicine, economics and history.
1800 AD: Industrial advances and wealth accumulated from the trade of tobacco, sugar and cotton which brought about the dawn of urban Scotland at the turn of the 19th century. The country shifted from rural to urban, and huge towns, large factories and heavy industry took hold. Mining, shipbuilding and textiles became an important part of Scotland’s development.