With the departure of the Roman’s from Scotland, four kingdoms emerged.
The Picts covered northern Scotland from the River Forth to the Shetlands, and are also remembered for their carved symbol stones.
The Britons wrote poetry in Old Welsh, and held Dumbarton Rock and the South.
The Gaelic speaking people of Dal Riato famed for their metalwork, like the Hunterston Brooch which dates from around AD 700, showing the Gaels, to be a highly artistic culture.
The Angles, Germanic invaders who held the Kingdom of Bernicia, who brought with them the Anglo-Saxon tongue, which became the Scots language.
In the early years of the 7th century, the Angles captured Edinburgh from the Britons, then pushed west to Galloway. In AD685, they struck north into Pictland, reaching a climax at Dunnichen. In the Battle of Dunnichen, King Bridei of the Picts, massacred the King of the Angles.
In AD793 the ferocious raids began on monasteries; Iona and Lindisfarne among others, creating fear and confusion across the kingdoms. Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles fell to these Norsemen.
In AD839 the Vikings wiped out the Pictish royal family. Competitors emerged for the kingship, and Kenneth MacAlpine, King of the Gaels of Dal Riata, became the undisputed King of the Picts in AD849. He brought with him the relics of St.Columba from the island of Iona to Dunkeld – the saint and his preaching’s were a powerful symbol of authority to accompany a Gaelic king to his new kingdom. Pictland hadn’t been fully conquered, but rather the foundations had been set for a new Gaelic Kingdom which included the Picts.
It wasn’t long before the Vikings were back, this time to conquer Britain. In AD867 they seized the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, followed up three years later, by storming Dunbarton Fortress, and went on to conquer much of Britain. The Picts and Gaels found themselves encircled by Viking forces.
In AD900 Constantine mac Aed became King of the Picts. In less than four years had defeated the Vikings at Strathcarron, not a battle of the sword but one out of diplomacy. He married off his daughters to the Vikings, creating an alliance along Gaelic lines and renaming it Alba. Alba was the creation of the Scottish nation, and the founding father was Constantine II, grandson of Kenneth MacAlpine.
In AD934 Ethelstan, the Anglo-Saxon King of England set about subduing the north of Britain to his will. He attacked Constantine at Dunnottar, but failed in his quest. Constantine invaded Britain but was defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh. Even though Constantine lost the battle he achieved in joining the Picts and Gaels into a single Gaelic speaking nation.