King Henry VIII
Henry was born on the 28th June 1491 to parents Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Greenwich Palace in London. On the 21st April 1509 he ascended to the English throne upon the death of his father; Henry VII.
On the 11th June 1509 Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon at Greenwich, and on the 24th June was crowned King Henry VIII of England at Westminster Abbey.
On the 9th September 1509, James IV of Scotland was slain by Henry’s forces at the “Battle of Flodden.”
On the 24th December 1515, Thomas Wolsey became the new Archbishop of Canterbury following the resignation of Archbishop Warham.
On the 18th February 1516 Catherine bore Henry a baby daughter; Mary, not the son and heir he so desired, yet she would become Queen Mary I in later years.
On the 31st October in the year 1517, the Protestant Reformation begins when Martin Luther posted his ninety-five theses on the church door at Wittenberg in Saxony. He called for a debate on the legality of papal indulgences, granted to certain individuals for the remission of punishment after death for their sins.
On the 4th October 1518, the Pope and the Kings of England, France and Spain signed a bilateral treaty of peace in Europe. The treaty was sealed with the marriage of Henry’s two-year old daughter Mary to the Dauphin in the Queen’s Chamber at Greenwich.
In May and June of 1520, Henry holds peace talks with Francis I of France at the “Field of the Cloth of Gold” an endeavour to achieve support against Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire… this ended with Mass held by Cardinal Wolsey.
On the 10th July Henry and Charles created a treaty of friendship.
On the 12th May 1521, Bishop Fisher of Rochester oversaw the burning of Martin Luther’s books at Paul’s Cross.
In April of 1521 an armed conflict was taking place between Francis I and Charles V against the agreed 1518 Treaty of London.
On the 29th July Thomas Wolsey was commissioned to mediate a peace treaty with Ambassadors From France and the Empire.
On the 29th May 1522 Henry formally declared war on France, and by 1523 the invasion on France had been abandoned.
In 1525 King Henry VIII had an affair with Mary Boleyn, and on the 4th March 1526, she gave birth to a son; Henry.
Henry’s illegitimate son; Henry Fitzroy was installed as a Knight of the Garter on the 7th June and on the 18th June 1525 became Duke of Richmond and Somerset showing to one and all, he be of Tudor and Beaufort ancestry.
Then on the 30th August Henry and the French Ambassadors signed the “Treaty of More.”
In 1526 Henry became totally infatuated by Anne Boleyn, and displayed a courtly love for her in public at the Shrove Tuesday jousts.
In 1527, Henry sought the annulment of his marriage to Catherine, so he could marry Anne Boleyn in an effort that she would bear him a royal son, and continue the royal line … his request was denied.
In 1529, Cardinal Wolsey is accused by Henry of committing high treason, his failure tom obtain the pope’s consent for his divorce. On the 9th October he is indicted in the Court of King’s Bench for illegal use, contrary to 14th century stature of “Praemunire.” On the 18th October he surrendered his seal of office, and on the 25th October the seal was delivered to his successor; Sir Thomas More.
On the 3rd November, forty-four complaints against Wolsey were put forward and on the 4th November the following year he is arrested on high treason, and before he could be brought to trial, he died on the 29th November 1530.
On the 1st September 1532, Henry presented Anne Boleyn as his future consort, and she received the title “Marchioness of Pembroke.” In the autumn, Anne informs Henry she is with child. On the 25th January 1533 King Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and on the 7th September she gives birth to a daughter; Elizabeth, who would grow up to be the last Tudor Queen of England.
In 1534 Parliament passed acts on successions to the English throne, without Rome having its say, and his subjects were required to swear an oath of allegiance.
On the 12th April Sir Thomas More refused, and on the 17th April Bishop Fisher refused, and they were imprisoned in the Tower of London to await their fate. On the 22nd June Bishop Fisher an outspoken critic of the King’s marriage annulment was beheaded on Tower Hill, followed by Thomas More on the 6th July 1535.
In January of 1535, Thomas Cromwell the newly appointed vicar-general over the church, ordered a census of ecclesiastical wealth across the land for tax purposes.
Six cannon lawyers were appointed to visit monasteries, in need of reform, but the true nature was to give Henry the legal right to confiscate their wealth. So it began in April of 1536 the “Dissolution of the Monasteries.”
In March of 1536, Parliament passed a law closing smaller monasteries whose income was less that £200 per year.
Royal commissioners arranged the dispersal of Monks and Nuns, using their assets to pay off servants and workers, then selling off household and farming stock, then installing tenants of the Crown.
All precious metals, ornaments etc became the property of the crown. In short the Crown was raiding these monasteries, with the approval of Parliament, to bolster their funds.
Some 800 monasteries and holy houses along with 10,000 monks, canons, nuns and friars had been scattered through England and Wales over a four year period.
On the 7th January Queen Catherine of Aragon dies at Kimbolton Castle in 1536, and was buried at Peterborough Abbey.
On the 2nd May, Queen Anne Boleyn along with her brother George were arrested on charges of incest and treason. On the 19th May, Queen Anne Boleyn was executed on Tower Hill and buried in the Chapel of St.Peter ad Vincula.
On the 20th May, Henry was betrothed to Jane Seymour, married on the 30th May and proclaimed Queen on the 4th June.
On the 8th June, Parliament excluded Anne Boleyn’s daughter Elizabeth, from the succession of Queen of England.
On the 12th October 1537, Queen Jane gave birth to a son; Edward who was baptised on the 15th October. On the 24th October Queen Jane Seymour died and on the 12th November she was buried at St.George’s Chapel, Windsor.
On the 6th January 1540, Henry married Anne of Cleaves, and by the 4th February he wanted the marriage annulled, as she was not a suitable Queen.
On the 10th June Thomas Cromwell was arrested, charged with treason, heresy, extortion and corruption, and on the 28th July was executed on Tower Hill.
On the 28th July 1540 Henry married Kathryn Howard at Oatlands Palace in Surrey, it wasn’t long before news reached his ears on the 2nd November 1541, from Archbishop Cramer, that his new Queen had taken two lover’s prior to her marriage. On the 8th November, she admitted her guilt, and on the 13th February was executed at Tower Hill.
On the 14th December 1542, James V of Scotland died, and succeeded by his six day old daughter; Mary Queen of Scots. On the 1st July 1543 King Henry VIII and Scottish commissioners sign the “Treaty of Greenwich,” the proposed marriage between Prince Edward and Mary, Queen of Scots. On the 11th December the Scottish Parliament, formally withdrew from the terms of the treaty, and reaffirmed their alliance with France.
On the 12th July 1543 Henry VIII marries Katherine Parr.
In March of 1544, Parliament restores the line of royal succession, for Henry’s illegitimate off-spring after Prince Edward; Mary then Elizabeth.
On the 19th July 1545, a French fleet of some 235 ships sailed towards the Isle of Wight, and came under attack, by the English fleet commanded by the Lord High Admiral; John Dudley, Viscount Lisle. On this day, the second ship of the line; “The Mary Rose” England’s first gunship built in 1509, capsized and sank.
On the 28th January 1547 King Henry VIII of England died at the Palace of Whitehall, and was buried in St.George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle alongside his beloved wife and Queen; Jane Seymour.